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Fundamentals Of Rock Mechanics Fundamentals Of Rock Mechanics

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Fundamentals Of Rock Mechanics

Introduction

Rock mechanics was defined by the Committee on Rock Mechanics of the Geological Society of America in the following terms: “Rock mechanics is the theoretical and applied science of the mechanical behavior of rock; it is that branch of mechanics concerned with the response of rock to the force fields of its physical environment” ( Judd, 1964). For practical purposes, rock mechanics is mostly concerned with rock masses on the scale that appears in engineering and mining work, and so it might be regarded as the study of the properties and behavior of accessible rock masses due to changes in stresses or other conditions. Since these rocks may be weathered or fragmented, rock mechanics grades at one extreme into soil mechanics. On the other hand, at depths at which the rocks are no longer accessible to mining or drilling, it grades into the mechanical aspects of structural geology (Pollard and Fletcher, 2005). Historically, rock mechanics has been very much influenced by these two subjects. For many years it was associated with soil mechanics at scientific conferences, and there is a similarity between much of the two theories and many of the problems. On the other hand, the demand from structural geologists for knowledge of the behavior of rocks under conditions that occur deep in the Earth’s crust has stimulated much research at high pressures and temperatures, along with a great deal of study of the experimental deformation of both rocks and single crystals (Paterson andWong, 2005). An important feature of accessible rock masses is that they are broken up by joints and faults, and that pressurized fluid is frequently present both in open joints and in the pores of the rock itself. It also frequently happens that, because of the conditions controlling mining and the siting of structures in civil engineering, several lithological types may occur in any one investigation. Thus, from the outset, two distinct problems are always involved: (i) the study of the orientations and properties of the joints, and (ii) the study of the properties and fabric of the rock between the joints. In any practical investigation in rock mechanics, the first stage is a geological and geophysical investigation to establish the lithologies and boundaries of the rock types involved. The second stage is to establish, by means of drilling or investigatory excavations, the detailed pattern of jointing, and to determine the mechanical and petrological properties of the rocks from samples. The third stage, in many cases, is to measure the in situ rock stresses that are present in the unexcavated rock.With this information, it should be possible to predict the response of the rock mass to excavation or loading. This chapter presents a very brief introduction to the different rock types and the manner in which rock fabric and faulting influences the rock’s engineering properties. A more thorough discussion of this topic can be found in Goodman

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